Describing melody I: Bad melodies

January 17, 2006

In the Baroque, Italian composers deemed melody as the most important element in a composition, whereas French composers held melody as subordinate to harmony, melody being merely the top voice of a progression of chords. This is clearly an oversimplification, but these philosophies have resonated down through the ages. Some songwriters come up with a chord progression and improvise a melody to fit it. Some songwriters write words first then fashion a tune to fit it, and then figure out what chords best accompany it. And finally, some songwriters come up with a tune, compose the harmonic accompaniment, and then come up with words that sound appropriate, or at least cool. (For an informative program on melody, listen to this NPR special on melody.)

My modernist colleagues don’t really like to even use the term “melody” as it evokes a musical language that they are happy to see gone (see my post on Jan. 15 on Sequenza21). Famous teacher of 20th century composers, Nadia Boulanger, urged her pride to embrace “la grande ligne” or the grand line as a kind of scaffolding from which the song or composition hangs.

Each of us has our own taste in melody. I prefer one that has an attractive shape, that goes somewhere, and has a well planned climax. I have little patience for a wandering operatic recitative whose function is not so much to melodically entertain, but to impart text using notes. I, like the masses of yore who would talk and even leave during the recitatives, wait for the arias: there is the real melodic reward.

Take a look at this melody:

Beethoven, Symphony No.7: Allegretto

This is the opening of the 2nd movement of Beethoven’s Symphony No.7. Using the aesthetic criteria I put forth, this melody is dull and boring. (Melody did not come easy to Beethoven. His sketchbooks show that he labored profoundly trying to come up with a great tune.) Add the chords and the rhythmic motive (quarter, eighth eighth quarter quarter) and that bad melody becomes unforgettable.

The Eurhythmics, an 80s duo fronted by Annie Lenox, recorded “Sweet Dreams” and made millions from one of the worst melodies I know. Look at the notes below and you’ll see the entire tune comes from these three (ok, four) notes. Sung out of context, the tune is aimless and repetitive, with no direction or shapely construction. But add Annie’s butch delivery, and that electro-pop hook underneath, and everyone races for the dance floor.

Sweet Dreams melodic source

The melody of “Sweet Dreams” can be thought of as “organic” in that the melody of the verses are all generated by this melodic sequence. The melody of the Beethoven passage is organic in that it all is delivered atop the incessant rhythm. Rufus Wainwright writes organic melodies as well. They are not wandering recitatives, or tunes that rely on underlying vamps or rhythms. They are melodies that can stand alone and shine. Add the accompaniment and they are even better. This is one of the qualities of his music I find so attractive, and one that I will be exploring in my book.

{ 5 comments… read them below or add one }

ShadowWing January 17, 2006 at 12:41 pm

Old Whore’s Diet.

Roger Bourland January 17, 2006 at 1:28 pm

Implying OWD ain’t a good tune?
Funny, I was just thinking that this one wasn’t one of his best. It’s one little melodic cycle that keeps going, and going, and going,….
My post might be a tad confusing, but I don’t mean to be asking for examples of “bad melodies” in RW’s music. I’ll be making a few more posts about melody. This post shows how a not-so-interesting tune in the right hands can turn into something great. OWD was really annoying to me at first, and then grew on me. It’s definitely a Dionysian cry.

Rhapsody January 17, 2006 at 3:08 pm

For whatever reason….the MC Hammer song, “Can’t Touch This ” is what comes to mind. In opposition to OWD….uhmmm…..well….

Look at the lyrics:

U can’t touch this
U can’t touch this
U can’t touch this (oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
U can’t touch this (oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
U can’t touch this

and:

(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
Bump bump bump yeah, u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
Look man, u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
You’ll probably get hyped boy ’cause you know you can’t, u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
Ring the bell school’s back in, break it down!
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
Stop! Hammer time!
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
(Oh-oh oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh) u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh) u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh) u can’t touch this
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh) break it down!
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
(Oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh-oh)
Stop! Hammer time!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Yikes.

The recitative songs I find irksome are the lounge-type songs that meander all over the place melody-wise, with no repetition, no beginning, middle or end…nothing for the listener to lock onto and make sense of. They seem to be some precursor to rap somehow (not a genre I can appreciate, hence the M C Hammer song that is now giving me a headache).

Didn’t the blonde girl in the “Friends” series sing songs like that? No tune to speak of..and no sense to the words either.

Repetition can be a very effective device in music…just as it can be in literary works. Used poorly in either medium, it’s just plain awful.

slvrlark January 17, 2006 at 5:19 pm

Though I agree that the Beethoven example isn’t a great tune, it’s amazing how captivating the beginning of that movement is. I remember even the first time I heard it as a teenager how instantly beautiful, how compelling it was, and it didn’t occur to me until many years later that it is kind of a dull tune. (At least it has a nice, if modest shape to it). But it is boring on purpose, for two reasons at least: 1) in order to get you to focus your attention on the harmony, and 2) because its compressed nature actually contributes to the hugely dramatic shape of the whole movement: it enables the variations that follow to become more and more intense—and then to die back down. You might even think at the end of the piece how amazing it is that so much grew out of so little.

Mark

ShadowWing January 17, 2006 at 7:30 pm

Roger Bourland says:
“Implying OWD ain’t a good tune?”

I was just saying that OWD is organic.
I find it an utterly boring melody.
The song goes on for over eight minutes, but Rufus manages to do a lot with it.
Lots of people have trouble with it at first.
If you have heard Rufus’ hilarious commentary or seen it live you will never be bored again.
Dionysian?…uh huh, and actually, quite witty.
Extra bonus: Good to listen to while running.

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